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Technologies Our team is frequently trained with newest technologies and has a strong background and skillsets on various platforms and frameworks. Our Certificates. Our Customers. However, despite the existing research on involvement, many researchers are convinced that no complete understanding of the involvement concept has yet been formulated. Similarly, the concept of product involvement has been studied by numerous researchers in consumer behavior and offered as a useful way to understand characteristics of various consumer groups as well as their behavioral tendencies Hanzaee et al.

In other words, product involvement is the perceived personal relevance of the product, based on needs, values or interest Zaichkowsky , According to Miller and Marks and Gordon et al. Researchers studying consumer behavior have important contribution to product involvement. This study is concerned with the construct of product involvement, a more permanent and consumer-based construct. Consumer involvement also suggests a continuum of consumer interest Douglas, Vaugh added that are high in cost, ego, support, social value, newness and risk require more information and attention to process.

In contrast, low involvement products attach little interest, are less risky and thus require less information and effort in purchasing process. For example, buying a car is totally different buying a ball pen because car has high value, and it takes a lot of money to buy, with some potential risks which can happen if buyer make a wrong decision, thus customers have to think carefully before making buying decision, whereas ball pen is so cheap that buyer does not need to consider carefully before buying it.

According to the study of Saha et al. It is postulated that since there are high and low involvement buyers; there are high and low involvement purchase situations as well. When consumers have no established criteria for evaluating a product category or specific brands in that category, their decision efforts can be termed as extensive problem solving. At this level, the buyer needs a great deal of information to establish a set of criteria on which the competing brands are evaluated.

To clarify the situations when high or low involvement happens, Ghafelehbashi et al. Car, dish washing machine, insurance, and house… are valuable items which purchase rarely and create many involvements. Mentioned risk is these situations is financial risk. Besides, selecting perfume, clothes, or jewelry based on social risk which overcome purchase decision, may indicate high involvement.

Low involvement is low mental involvement in relation to purchasing a product. For items with low price such as washer powder, toothpaste, cereals…, which purchase repeatedly, there is no need to collect information or to put emphasis on it. Items such as alcoholic liquors and nonalcoholic beverage, all types of cigarette, and chocolate, are among low involvement products. Although, they create strong sense of self satisfaction which results from product. Lockshin suggested that a consumer who is highly involved with a product class will think more about this product, will search more widely for information relating to it, such as information about product functions or its country of origin…; and will spend more time and effort during the purchase decision making process than lesser involved consumers will.

As stated in chapter I, the scope of this research is bounded by cell phone users whose cell phones are equal or over than 1 million VND — considered as a type of product which has high involvement from users. Therefore, factors of product involvement studied in this research belong to high product involvement. Specifically, they are: He said that people do not acquire products for the benefits of the products themselves, but for the utility that is produced by characteristics of the products attributes.

However, many of the product characteristics that are important from the point of view of consumers as well as designers are neither physical nor objective. Gwin et al. Benefits are the positive outcomes that come from the attributes. People seek products that have attributes that will solve their problems and fulfills their needs. Understanding why a consumer chooses a product based upon its attributes helps marketers to understand why some consumers have preferences for certain brands, because their atribute beliefs create a strong sense of preference in their mind.

Both tangible and intangible attributes of a product are equally important in choosing a product or brand. It was found that the more attributes non-negative associated with a brand, the more loyal the customers are. Romariuk and Sharp , suggested that marketers should focus more on how many attributes the brand should be associated with. However, the study did not specify what sort of attributes relevant or irrelevant, tangible or intangible marketers should associate the brand with.

This is because it is important that consumer accurately learn about product attribute performances since it would influence their interpretations of product performance by causing memory encode and retrieval bias. Unfounded product attribute relationship beliefs can mislead them into expecting something that is not there. Hence if products fall short of customer expectations, then dissatisfaction would result. It is evident that product attributes are most salient to the consumers Garvin, , Actually, perception of product performance on the salient attributes is more important than actual performance.

The attributes that consumers expect in a product and how positively or negatively they rate these attributes to help develop and promote a successful product. Malasi, Involvement with products has been hypothesised to lead to a greater perception of attribute differences, greater product importance, and greater commitment to brand choice. Several studies of consumer behavior have examined product involvement, which pertains to feelings of inherent needs, values, enthusiasm and interest toward product categories Zaichkowsky, These stances are evidenced in consumer tendencies to affix more importance to specific products and knowledge of attributes and brands.

Zhang et al. The notion of product attributes is formed and existing during the perception process. Also in their study, Zhang et al. They are: Indeed, besides price, most of these factors get the attention and interest from consumers when they intend to buy a mobile phone. They are also the main information cell phone manufacturers commonly expose when they introduce a new product to consumers.

It also is known as product familiarity, expertise and experience Lee and Lee According to Brucks , consumer product knowledge is categorized into three kinds: On the other hand, consumers high in subjective knowledge should have less well developed category structures stored in memory than consumers high in objective knowledge who tend to keep themselves updated about market conditions Park and Lessing, Product knowledge also plays a prominent role in information search behaviour and it is an important indicator of consumer behaviour.

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Lin and Chen concluded that as product involvement increases, the influence of product knowledge on both information search and purchase decision becomes greater. Usually people undertake certain actions before actually purchasing, including: With consumer involvement towards a specific product, it is important to build consumer knowledge and information searching intention. Customers with a high level of knowledge have a greater tendency to have more information in their memory than people with a low level of knowledge. Furthermore, they are also more conscious about particular product knowledge and product characteristics.

In comparison they are less involved in product information and analysing the quality of product is very hard and complicated for them Samin et al. For instance, consumers who are involved with cameras are motivated to work harder at choosing which brand to buy. They may spend more time and effort shopping for the product visiting more stores, doing research online.

They may interpret more product information in the environment read more ads and brochures , and they may spend more time and effort integrating this product information to evaluate brands and make a purchase choice.

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Similarly, according to Engel and Blackwell , consumers will search for more information at the high involvement level, especially for external information. In contrast, low involvement consumers will search for little information, and mainly depend on internal information. In other words, the more customers interest in a product, the more knowledge they get from their searching and interest activities toward the product. The brand's country of origin is an important marketing element known to influence consumer perceptions as well as behavior, because it can guide to associations in the minds of consumers Aaker, ; Keller, The country of origin of a product is an extrinsic cue which is similar to brand name.

This is true because country of origin becomes a heuristic basis for inferring the product quality without considering other attributes. Similarly, Chaiken and Maheswaran believed that consumers simplify judgments on product quality by retrieving preestablished evaluations from their memories. These pre-established evaluations act as shortcuts for judging the quality of a product. Therefore, consumers may use information, like country of origin, as the overall basis for judging the quality of a product.

In a meta-analysis of 52 published studies, Peterson and Jolibert found that country of origin accounted for 30 percent of the explained variance for quality and reliability perceptions. In another meta-analysis of empirical studies published between and , Verlegh and Steenkamp reported that the country of origin had a stronger influence on quality perceptions than on purchase intentions. They stated that consumers form a particularly strong link between country of origin and perceived product quality.

This supported to the definition about country of origin of Han , stated that: That is the reason why we are more reliable in a product which comes from USA than another one made in China. Consumers consider the purchase to be very important and thus provoke extensive information processing in high-involved purchases Shiffman et al. Other earlier researches also investigated on the importance consumers place on country of origin cue when evaluating products by measuring their product involvement level Pharr, ; Verlegh and Steenkamp, According to Kapferer and Laurent , pleasure is the emotional attraction state, the ability of product to bring comfort and emotion to consumers.

It is also one of the most important factors in consumer behavior. Hedonic values of a product are obtained by customers through the intrinsically pleasing properties of a product Wirtz and Lee, Hedonic values are also associated with the sensory and experiential attributes of the product Batra et al. The more brand gains meaning for the consumer, the more it becomes identitical with the self. Self-image congruity can also generate attachment to a specific brand. Consumers attribute human qualities to brands, and then they develop attitudes towards symbolic concepts assumed to be carried by the brands, because consumers perceive brand not only as a commercial meta, but also as a friend, a partner, or even a lover Fournier, Sirgy, in his research about self-concept in consumer behavior , stated that products and brands possessed and consumed are a way to define whom a person wants to be or wants to be seen as by others to himself and people whose thoughts are important.

Sirgy also argued that self concept is defined by self image which is of four sub-selves called actual self, social self, ideal self and ideal social self. Actual self is how a person sees himself, whereas social self is how he thinks he is seen by other people. Ideal self is how a person wants to see himself and ideal social self is how he wants to be seen by others. Consumers give their buying decisions accounting for symbolic meanings which enhance consumers statue and self worth Palumbo and Herbig, , thus consumers choose brands projecting congruent images with their own actual, ideal, social, and ideal social images Sirgy, This is also a method to support self-image and self-respect of consumers.

In their research, Quester and Lim take the view that product involvement and brand loyalty are positively related and that high product involvement precedes the development of brand loyalty. More specifically, they mention that consumers who are more involved with a particular brand are also more committed and hence more loyal to that brand and suggested that high involvement as a precondition to loyalty.

Yi-Youjae and Hoseong confirmed that customer loyalty was highly affected by involvement when organized a research to find out the moderating role of involvement on loyalty program. The relationship between loyalty and product involvement is that consumers who are more involved with a particular brand, are more committed and hence, more loyal to that brand Traylor and Indeed, Assael argues that the cognitive definition of brand loyalty represents commitment and therefore, involvement with the brand. Hence, brand switching would be a more frequent behavior rather than for another consumer to whom this product is more highly involving.

His reasoning seems to suggest that consumers with a smaller consideration set of a high-involvement type product category would have high brand commitment. Leclerc and Little confirmed that brand loyalty interacted with product involvement. The authors stated that repeat purchase behavior for a high involvement product was an indicator of brand loyalty; whereas repeat purchase for a low involvement product has implied habitual purchase behavior.

Involvement has an impact on whether the purchase process consists of formal search and evaluation or is more habitual. Low involvement purchasing tends to be habitual whereas high involvement requires planning.

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Therefore, if the purchase employs high involvement, it is expected that there will be more complex conscious engagement in cognitive activity Bloch, ; East, Iwasaki and Havitz argued that highly loyal people tended to exhibit high levels of involvement and those individual and social situational factors such as personal values or beliefs, social and cultural norms, influenced the behavioral loyalty. Brink et al. They shown that consumers perceive a significantly enhanced level of brand loyalty as a result of strategic cause related marketing. Similarly, Ismail et al. The reason may be that the more the consumers will have involvement with a product the more they will be inclined towards that product and will feel comfortable to use that brand.

All the factors of product involvement have also significant impact on brand loyalty which means that brand loyalty is significantly influenced by product involvement in all respects. Studies examining the relationship between product involvement and brand loyalty have tended to treat product involvement in a dichotomous manner. Product attributes perception, Product knowledge, Country of origin perception, Pleasure and Self-image expression.

Kotler and Armstrong said that consumers regard product as the combination of product attributes which are capable to satisfy their interests or requirements. Even in some situations, product attributes influence loyalty more than brands Jarvis and Goodman, Based on these theories, the first hypothesis in this research is: Many previous research has found the relationship between product knowledge and consumer behaviours, such as: For further research, this research let the hypothesis assuming that product knowledge has a direct impact on brand loyalty.

Hence, the second hypothesis is: For example, Kim suggested that favorable country image could lead to brand popularity and hence to consumer loyalty.

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Shahin et al. A plausible explanation for this expected relationship is that brands originated from countries with good images are farmiliar to consumers and products of these brands are usually perceived as high quality products, hence, consumers keep good and favorable associations from these brands. Based on that, the third hypothesis is: There are many studies proving that pleasure of users affects on their loyalty toward a brand.

However, the influence levels of product knowledge to brand loyalty in different studies are not the same because of the differentiation in studied products. Furthermore, some studies showed that pleasure can be merged with another dimension of CIP scale — interest, and this combination has positive impact on brand loyalty, although there is differences in these studies. To test whether pleasure has strong or weak effect on brand loyalty of cell phone users in Ho Chi Minh City, and whether they can be mergerd with any other factors in the research model, researcher sets the fourth hypothesis as follows: The more cell phone users are pleased in their cell phone, the more they are loyal to its brand.

Pettigrew certainly maintains that sign is one such variable showing a close affinity with hedonistic, pleasure oriented behavior. Essientally this leads to a subconscious, subjective, emotional connection with a certain brand that consumers may identify due to expectations and understandings of peer groups to which they belong.

This behavior may be post rationalized with logical and utilitarian reasoning Douglas, To test whether it is right for Ho Chi Minh cell phone users, researcher assumes the fifth hypothesis as: This framework consists of two kinds of variable: Independent variables in this study are 5 factors of product involvement: Many related theories and research has been mentioned and referred in the chapter in order to design the conceptual framework and set up hypotheses. Based on those theories and research, the conceptual framework has been proposed with 5 factors affecting on the brand loyalty of cell phone users in Ho Chi Minh City, they are: Research process 3.

During this process, many journals, articles, studies, and papers which are mainly about branding, consumer perception, product attributes, product knowledge, country of origin, hedonic values, self-image, product involvement and brand loyalty were collected via both online and offline sources. Based on these theories, researcher designed the initial conceptual framework and some particular sections of measurement scales. Based on this, researcher applied this method on April, to interview 10 cell phone users in Ho Chi Minh City.

Interviewees were chosen based on following standards: To modify and strengthen the research model, as well as to design items in measurement scales, researcher designed questions for individual depth interview and then interviewed 10 cell phone users in Ho Chi Minh City in order to explore how interviewees interpret and answer the questions. The individual depth interview took each interviewee about half an hour for completing. The respondents were encouraged to express their point of view freely by using open-ended questions.

Questions in the interviews were designed to explore attitudes, behaviors, as well as opinions of cell phone users in Ho Chi Minh City so that they can reveal their perception toward the relationship between product involvement and brand loyalty. During the interview, interviewer could explain issues that respondents did not understand, which would lead to a high risk in accuracy.

After that, based on the individual depth interview results, researcher will design the questionnaire for survey with the sample was up to cell phone users in Ho Chi Minh. Results of individual depth interview show that: Features, price, performance, durability, and appearance. Therefore, these features items would be designed as items in Product attributes measurement scale. Based on these results, researcher modified the research model and designed questionnaires. The survey questionnaire was designed into 3 parts: Hence, to get the exact results, research object in this research is just people who use mobile phone which are equal or over than 1 million VND.

Besides, this part also investigates what mobile phone brands respondents were using. There are 29 items to measure 6 variables in the conceptual framework, each variable measurement scale has 4 to 6 items See more in Appendix C. Specifically, Product attributes perception measurement scale has 5 items, Product knowledge measurement scale has 6 items, Country of origin perception measurement scale has 5 items, Pleasure measurement scale has 4 items, Self-image expression measurement scale has 4 items, and Brand loyalty measurement scale has 5 items.

All items are statements which are about X — The sign that is indicated as the current mobile phone of repsondents. All items of variables were measured by five-point nominal Likert scale - which has 5 levels: Typically more attributes are evaluated when the level of purchase involvement is high. In this research, there are five particular product attributes of mobile phone are measured, based on results of individual depth interview.

Table 2. Table 3. Table 5. Table 7. Roger stated that the minimal sample size applied in technical studies is from to Based on the above theories, researcher decided to collect data with the sample of participants. Firstly, nonprobability sampling is less expensive and costly to collect data than probability sampling. Secondly, nonprobability sampling procedures can meet the sampling objectives.

Lastly, nonprobability sampling is the only feasible alternative if the population may not be available for study in certain cases. Among methods of nonprobability sampling, the most common method is convenience sampling. This approach is applied in this research because it can save much time and money to collect data. By applying convenience sampling method, both soft and hard copies of the survey were distributed to respondents by these ways: Time for collecting data: Implement descriptive statistics to describe both demographic information and items of variables in the research, which were collected from survey forms.

Both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied in this research. To be more specific, in qualitative method, desk research and individual depth interview were implemented to collect both secondary data and primary data for creating theoretical foundation, strengthening the research model and designing measurement scales. In quantitative research, researcher conducted a survey with respondents. Data collected from questionnaires was analysized by SPSS software with types of tests such as descriptive statistics, reliability test, exploratory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis.

Data analysis process and results are presented specifically in chapter IV. SPSS software was used to implement these tests. As stated in Chapter III, all items in measurement scales are statements which are about X — The sign that is indicated as the current mobile phone of repsondents. Based on that, there were printed questionnaires distributed to respondents, combined with the link of the online survey sent through e-mail and Facebook social network.

There were questionnaires researcher could get back from respondents among questionnaires delivered, and there were 82 resondents answered through the Internet. After removing 20 unstandardized questionnaires in the cases that respondents use mobile phones which are less than 1 million VND, or lack of important information , data from questionnaires includes printed and 82 online sheets were input in SPSS software for quantitative analysis.

The sample description results are presented in Table 8, Table 9 and Appendix E. Descriptive statistics of mobile phone brands used by respondents No. It is interesting to see that Nokia and Samsung are the most popular mobile phone brands in the scope of this study. To be more specific, there are 72 people using Nokia, and 62 people using Samsung, take Again, it is interesting that Apple has the same position in both two tables: Besides, the other mobile phone brands in the survey take Table 9.

It means, there were people in this age group took part in the survey. The other 2 groups are: The others are people who had other jobs take Table 4 shows the mean and standard deviation of each item: Descriptive statistics for independent and dependent variables Encryption Item Mean Standard Deviation X's features are very useful for my using PA1 4. Standard deviations of items fluctuate from 0.

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All items have minimum value is 1 and maximum value is 5, exclude item COO3, which has minimum value is 2 See more in Appendix E. Cronbach's Alpha is a measure of internal consistency. It is commonly used as an estimate of the reliability of a psychometric test for a sample of examinees. It helps researchers know how closely related a set of items are as a group. By Cronbach's Alpha analysis, inconsistent items will be removed before implementing exploratory factor analysis.

A commonly accepted rule of thumb for describing internal consistency using Cronbach's Alpha is as follows Kline, , however, a greater number of items in the test can artificially inflate the value of Alpha Cortina, and a sample with a narrow range can deflate it, so this rule of thumb should be used with caution: Table Wikipedia Corrected item-total correlation is performed to check if any item in the set of tests is inconsistent with the averaged behaviour of the others, and thus can be discarded. Corrected item-total correlation must be greater than 0.

If corrected item-total correlation of an item is smaller than 0. The final results of reliability test of this research in the table below, as well as in Appendix E show that all 6 measurement scales have their Cronbach's Alpha values greater than 0. However, there are 2 items deleted from their measurement scales: This will be clarified clearlier in the next part. Among 6 measurement scales, Brand loyalty is the scale which has the highest Cronbach's Alpha value: It is also the exclusively dependent variable in this research. The Cronbach's Alpha value of each particular items will be presented in the following parts: Cronbach's Alpha value of each item in this measurement scale is presented in table 13 in the next page.

Cronbach's Alpha value of each item in this measurement scale is presented in the table below: Hence, if COO4 is deleted, Cronbach's Alpha value of this measurement scale will be increased to the acceptable level. More frequently, factor analysis is used as an exploratory technique when the researcher wishes to summarize the structure of a set of variables Coakes et al. According to Hair et al.

After testing reliability level of measurement scales, standardized items were used for exploratory factor analysis. It means that data used for exploratory of factor analysis was suitable. Therefore, reject hypothesis H0: Variables are not correlated to each other. Next, Principle components analysis extraction method was applied. It means, sum of these 5 components explain Hence, measurement scales have practical meanings and their own items are significant.

Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in 6 iterations. Table 21 shows that after applying Varimax rotation method, items in measurement scales have some changes. To be more specific, items in Product attributes perception scale are not in a particular factor component together. PA3 and PA4. Because of these changes, 2 measurement scales: Product attributes perception and Pleasure need to be renamed and re-calculated their Cronbach's Alpha values. There is no change for items of 3 remaining measurement scales: Product knowledge, Country of origin perception and Self-image expression, so they do not need to be modified.

Factor 1 now includes 4 items of Pleasure scale and 2 items of Product attributes perception scale, include PA1: Based on the meanings of 4 Pleasure items and 2 Product attributes perception items, researcher gave a new name for Factor 1: Pleasure and Enjoyment. Results are shown in Table 24, Table 25 and Appendix F. Summery of reliability test for variables. Number of No. Mean value of each variable is presented in Table 27 and Figure 2 see more in Appendix H. The mean values of independent variables are fairly high.

Among 5 independent variables, Country of origin has the highest mean — 4. It implies that most respondents agree or totally agree to items in Country of origin measurement scale. These results can affect on recommendations for mobile phone manufacturers in their managerial implication. This will be clarified clearly in the next chapter. Mean values of independent variables Variable Mean Product quality perception 3. Mean values of independent variables 4.

It means, the extracted factor explains a total of Hence, the Brand loyalty measurement scale has practical meaning and its items are significant. To be more specific, 2 items of Product attributes perception scale were moved to Pleasure scale, so Product attributes perception scale just remained 2 items. Therefore, these 2 measurement scales were renamed as: This is the modified conceptual framework: Table 28 shows the hypotheses after analyzing factors.

After that, multiple regression analysis will be used to test hypotheses in this research. This means that 1 variable can be linearly predicted from the others with a non-trivial degree of accuracy. In this research, Pearson correlation method were applied to analyze the correlation between the dependent variable is Brand loyalty LOY and 5 independent variables, include: The results are shown in Table Correlation is significant at the 0.

In this research, regression analysis is applied to test the relationship and effects of independent variables on brand loyalty, and the regression formula is: To check whether multicollinearity appears in multiple regression analysis, we look at Tolerance and Variance inflation factor VIF values of variables. If tolerance value of a variable is less than 0. Results of multiple regression analysis in this research are presented in Appendix I, show that: Therefore, the hypothesis which indicates that all regression coefficients of variables in this research equal to 0 H0: As a result, the regression formula of this research: In other words, there is a significant relationship between dependent and independent variables.

Standardized Beta coefficients and significance values of independent variables Variable Standardized Beta Coefficients Sig. This means Product knowledge is the only variable in the research which does not significantly influence brand loyalty. Therefore, the regression formula in this research is rewritten as follows: All Tolerance values are higher than 0.

Therefore, multicollinearity phenonmenon is not a problem in this research, even if there were, it would be at the acceptable level. Therefore, there is no autocorrelation. Conceptual framework after regression analysis 4. As a result, H2 is rejected. We can indicate that if the knowledge about cell phone of people increases, it may not make them more loyal to their cell phone brand. The positive relationship between product knowledge and brand loyalty may be right for other products, or in certain foreign research situations, however, it may be different in Ho Chi Minh mobile phone market.

This indicates that if a cell phone brand can create the belief of consumers in its country of origin, they will be more loyal to the brand. Compared to other factors in the research model, country of origin perception has the weakest impact on brand loyalty. The more people are pleased and enjoyable in their cell phone, the more they are loyal to its brand. This is because the standardized regression coefficient of Pleasure and Enjoyment factor is 2. Similar as Product quality, this factor also has sig. Self-image expression has the standardized regression coefficient is 0.

Accordingly, H5 is accepted. This hypothesis can be explained as follows: By using a mobile phone, people can define their own self- concepts, as well as express their self-images to others. Therefore, if a mobile phone company can help its consumers reflect their own ego positively like the ways they want, the company can believe that consumers will give more loyalty to its brands.

After having some changes during the data analysis process, at last, there are 4 factors which have impacts on brand loyalty of cell phone users in Ho Chi Minh City. Product knowledge is the factor which was removed from the research model because of its high significance 0. The next chapter will discuss data analysis results, offer some managerial implications for mobile phone manufacturers, as well as state limitations of the research and suggest for further research. Next, managerial implications which indicate the actual course of action that should be taken by mobile phone manufactures will be offered.

Besides, limitations of the study and ideas for further research are also presented in this final chapter. However, after conducting quantitative research, the model remains 4 factors which have significant statistical meanings. Hence, it can be indicated that hedonic values — pleasure and enjoyment, really take an important role toward brand loyalty of cell phone users in Ho Chi Minh.

This result is similar to previous studies. However, the impact level of Pleasure in different studies are not the same because of their different research objects and situations. Risk probability and Sign Self-image expression. In addition, some studies showed that Pleasure can be merged with another dimension of CIP scale — Interest, and this combination has positive impact on brand loyalty, although there is differences in these studies.

The initial name of this factor is Product attributes perception. However, after reliability and validity tests, this factor just remained 2 items whose contents related to quality of a product: Therefore, the name of this factor was changed to be more exact in content expression. This factor shows that if a mobile phone manufacturer wants to maintain the loyalty of consumers, it has to focus on the quality of products.

The positive relationship between good product quality perception and brand loyalty is evident. Thimangu affirmed that perceived quality and brand loyalty were positively and significantly related. He stated that if customers perceive that the product has good quality, they will remain and continue to be loyal to the brand.

This is also supported by the research work of Dawar and Parker whereby it is has been argued that success goes with quality and marketers should promote strategies that will promote consumers perception on product quality. Similar to clothes, accessories, or motobike, to some people, mobile phone is a type of product which can define their self-concepts, expose their personalities, or express their self- images so that others can view.

By owning and using their mobile phone, many people feel confident and they want others to know who they are just by looking at the mobile phone they use. If a mobile phone manufacturer, by their products, can meet this requirement of consumers, it can be easy to get their loyalty. Research of Tuan about impact of product personality factors on brand loyalty of Vietnamese cell phone users, has the same result in finding the relationship between self-image expression and brand loyalty as in this research shows.

Because today, mobile phone is a product which is really important to people, especially who living in cities. People use their mobile phone everyday, or even every minute, so it is really annoyed if the mobile phone they use has bad quality. Therefore, people care about country of origin of the mobile phone before buying it because they think country of origin of a mobile phone is closely related to its quality.

Many people said that they would not buy a mobile phone if they did not know where its country of origin was. In this research, there is no relationship between product knowledge and brand loyalty of cell phone users in Ho Chi Minh City. There are several reasons which can explain for this. Many people buy and use a mobile phone just because they like it, or they are persuaded by attractive mobile phone advertisements.

Although they use their mobile phone every day, they may not know much about it, or they are not interested in news or events related to their mobile phone, even they do not carefully search information about their mobile phone before buying it. Moreover, some people just use the mobile phone but do not know how to preserve it for the best performance; or even they do not understand fundamental parameters of their cell phone because they do not read the guidance for use before using it.

However, although this study claims that there is no relationship between product knowledge and brand loyalty, this conclusion is just suitable for the set of data collected for this study. In short, the main objective of this research: Pleasure and Enjoyment, Product quality perception, Self-image expression, and Country of origin perception on Brand loyalty. The second objective: Today, mobile phone market in Ho Chi Minh City is highly competitive with the existence of many different brands.

Consumers now have various choices in different mobile phone brands, hence, they can easily switch from using a particular brand to another one. From that, they can keep consumers to continue to use their brand, not switch to another brand of competitors. To do that, mobile phone manufacturers need to focus on some certain factors.

More specifically, they should do following things: A mobile phone can give great hedonic values to its user. Indeed, by using a mobile phone, users can experience the pleasure and enjoyment for themselves. These hedonic values can be a result of good features or attractive appearance… of a mobile phone which can please and satisfy requirements of the users.

Once consumers are pleasurable and enjoyable in using their mobile phone, they will be loyal to its brand because they know that brand is suitable to their needs and expectations. Some people feel enjoyable because of the variety of games and applications in the mobile phone, while others just love the elegant design of their mobile phone.

Therefore, mobile phone companies should investigate what consumers are really interested in their products. Once companies know it, they will focus on what make consumers to be pleasurable and have enhancements to attract consumers effectively. According to Vranesevic et al. Everybody expects in high quality of a product when they buy and use it, not only expensive products but also the cheap ones such as pen, notebook… For a mobile phone, quality is really important.

No one buys a cell phone which has average price is over than 1 million VND just to use in some days. Even many people are ready to buy a cheap mobile phone to use rather than a moderner one just because it is more durable. Quality of a mobile phone can be presented by its durability and performance. Specifically, when buying a mobile phone, consumers expect that their cell phone can perform smoothly without any systematical or physical problems. Therefore, mobile phone manufacturers should invest in developing technologies to improve their product quality. These improvements can be increasing the quality and duration of battery in the mobile phone, strengthening physical details so that the mobile phone can against to intense external impacts, or checking carefully new products to ensure that there is not any systematical errors before launching them into the market… At the present, Nokia is considered as the brand which presents for quality.

It has many products that are strong in durability. Thank to this, Nokia has taken the majority of market share in wordwide mobile phone market because consumers believe in its quality. Nowadays, mobile phone is not just a tool for communication simply, it is also a device which can express self-images of users. This is a great opportunity for mobile phone manufacturers to attract their consumers. By investigating in different groups of cell phone users in society through surveys or interviews, marketers can identify and divide the market into different segments.

Based on characteristics in the segments, mobile phone companies can design business strategies which are suitable for consumers in each of the segments. For example, cell phone users in group A are teenagers. They wish their mobile phones could express the dynamism and the ebullience of the youth.

Therefore, mobile phone manufacturers usually design colorful products for this group of consumers and sell at an acceptable price level. Samsung Galaxy Young is an outstanding illustration for this. These colorful mobile phones with fashionable entertainment features such as accessing to social networks like Facebook, Twitter… fastly and easily, listening to music, playing various games… but at an acceptable price level has made a trend in using mobile phone of the youth.

Another example, cell phone users in group B are successful businessmen. Of course, they do not like a mobile phone like Samsung Galaxy Young, instead, they want to have a mobile phone which can show their success, their high position in society. In this case, luxurious mobile phones which have expensive price and sophisticated designs like Vertu or Mobiado… are their choices. Therefore, mobile phone manufacturers need to catch and understand personalities, as well as the needs of their consumers to know exactly what consumers want, and in what specific ways they want to express themselves so that manufacturers can design suitable products for each group of consumers.

However, mobile phone companies, especially the small ones, do not need to design particular products for all groups of consumers. Based on the financial status and other conditions of the organization, companies just should focus on certain potential consumers groups to ensure that they can supply the best products for these consumers. It is better than investing in various groups but not understanding clearly about self-image expression needs of people in the groups.

Brands that originated from countries with good images are familiar to the consumers and products of these brands are usually perceived as high quality products. Consumers also keep good and favorable associations from these brands. Actually, Vietnamese consumers are easier to be persuaded by products which originated from Western countries such as US, UK, France… than which originated from Asian coutries such as China.

Chinese mobile phones are cheap, but their quality is not warranted at all. Hence, the model needs to be added other independent variables to be more accucracy. Further research should explore other factors of product involvement which have impact on brand loyalty to revise the conceptual framework in this research. Due to the time and cost constraints, researcher just studied on cell phone users in Ho Chi Minh City by convenience sampling method. This may limit the generalizability of the findings as perceptions and opinions of respondents in this research can not have enough representation for all cell phone users in Ho Chi Minh.

Thus, further research can be studied with a larger sample size by probability sampling method to increase the generalization and reliability of the research. This research just studies the impact of product involvement factors on the brand loyalty of cell phone users. To be more specific, further research should investigate how this impact is different from in each group of demography. For example, how the perception in relationship between product involvement factors and brand loyalty of young people is different from perception of the older ones? Or how different mobile phone brands have different perceptions of cell phone users in the impact of product involvement factors on brand loyalty?

By those ways, researchers can explore different perceptions in different groups of cell phone users, so that mobile phone manufacturers can divide the market in specific segments in order to exploit all potentials of mobile phone market in Ho Chi Minh City. Aaker, D. Managing Brand Equity: Capitalizing on the Value of a Brand Name. New York, NY: The Free Press. Alba, J. Factors of Consumer Expertise. Conceptualization and operationalization of involvement, in Kinnear, T. Association for Consumer Research, — Argawal, J.

Do chỉ là phiên bản thử nghiệm nên chiếc Q10 lần này cũng có đôi chút khác biệt.

An Integrated Model of Attitude and Affect: Theoretical Foundation and an Empirical Investigation. Journal of Business Research, 58 4 , — Arun, K. How to Scale Brands Up or Down. Indian Management, 42 10 , 54— Assael H.

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Consumer Behavior and Marketing Action. Kent Publishing Company.

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Monroe, A. Association for Consumer Research, 61— Bloch P. Journal of Marketing, 47, Brink, D. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23 1 , 15— Brisoux, J. Brand categorization and product-involvement, in Goldberg, M. Brucks, M. The effects of product class knowledge on information search behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 12 1 , Churchill, G.

A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 16 1 , 64— Celsi, R. Journal of Consumer Research, 15 September , —